Kerala or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act, and it combined various Malayalam speaking regions. Kerala was a major spice-exporter as early as 3,000 BCE. Around the 13th century, Kerala saw the arrival of Vasco da Gama in Kappad, Kozhikode in 1498. This was the beginning of the Portuguese domination on the eastern shipping trade in general, and the spice-trade in particular.

Tamil Nadu has been the home of the Tamil people since at least 500 BCE. Its official languageTamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 2000 years. Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts and multi-religious pilgrimage sites.

Karnataka, the land of the Kannadigas,initially known as theState of Mysore was was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of theStates Reorganisation Act. Parts of modern-day Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire between 990-1210 AD. Karnataka has also been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic(Music in Karnataka)  and Hindustani traditions.

Madhya Pradesh emerged as an Indian state in the year 1956.The origin of Madhya Pradesh dates back to the Paleolithic age, when men were primitive and dwelled in caves. Bhimbetka cave paintings of the state reiterate the fact. As far as chronicling is concerned, the history of Madhya Pradesh regresses to the time of emperor Ashoka. Chandra Gupta Maurya, grandfather of Prince Ashoka, established the Mauryan Empire (321 to 185 BCE) in Northern India, including the state of Madhya Pradesh. Mauryan Empire received a setback after Ashoka's death and subsequently ebbed away into oblivion.

Rajasthan was inhabited long before 2500 BC and the Indus Valley Civilisation had its foundation here in north Rajasthan itself. The history of Rajasthan dates back to pre-historic times as one finds settlements dating to this period in Rajasthan. Ancient Hindu scriptures like Mahabharata and Ramayana make references to the holy city of Pushkar in Rajasthan. Known as the "Land of Princes", several dynasties have ruled here and contributed to the development of Rajasthan. Rajasthan fell under the empires of Magadha, Kushanas, Guptas, and Mauryas.

The history of Delhi can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization when Delhi was also the part of the settlement at some point of time during the long period of the Indus Valley Civilization. Delhi, for the first time became the capital city during the period of the great epic, Mahabharata when the Pandavas established their capital Indraprastha at Delhi in c. 1450 BC. Archaeological evidences have corroborated this fact after the excavation carried out at the Old Fort area.

Uttarakhand has a long history of its genesis and evolution, that highlights the great emperors, such as the Kushanas, Kudinas, Kanishka, Samudragupta, Katuria, Palas, Chandras and Pawaras.Talking about the history of Uttarakhand,it can be said that Uttarakhand finds reference in many holy Hindu scriptures.

The history of Himachal Pradesh dates back to the days of Indus Valley civilization. Gradually the Aryan civilization invaded this region.In fact, human settlements in Himachal Pradesh date back to two million years. In ancient times, the region of Himachal Pradesh was made up of a number of small republic states known as Janapadas.

Goa has an endless list of rulers which have ruled this state through many years. Starting from 4th century, Goa has been under the rule of various rulers. The feudal lords of Mauryan Empire, of the 4th-5th centuries, Bhojas, were the first to rule Goa. Some other kingdoms to have ruled Goa include Kadamba Dynasty, Silahara Dynasty and the Hoysalas from 11th century to 14th century.The 14th century saw Goa gradually becoming a trading centre. It was this time when eminent empires, namely, Vijaynagar Empire took Goa under its rule. However, they were soon defeated by the Bahmani Sultans and took the controls in their hand, but things started to change in 1510 A.D when Portuguese arrived in Goa.

nws1 2011-10-27


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